While the news of Europe's reopening to American travelers is causing excitement among travel advisors and their clients, each country is able to set slightly different entry requirements, causing complications for would-be travelers.
The welcome mat is being extended most enthusiastically to vaccinated travelers, and that testing is still required in some countries even with proof of vaccination. And a Covid test is still required of any traveler entering, or re-entering, the U.S.
We have compiled information on countries that are now open to U.S. visitors. As the regulations and details are shifting, it bears repeating that advisors should stay abreast of the rules by visiting the CDC website, Reopen Europe and individual U.S. embassy and tourist office websites.
Updated July 28.
Travel to Albania
Albania is an outlier among other European destinations in that all U.S. travelers are welcome with no testing or quarantine requirements.
There is, however, a curfew from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m., and masks are required in indoor public spaces for anyone over the age of 11. Travelers should take note that noncompliance for mask wearing can result in a fine.
Travel to Austria
Austria opened to American travelers June 24. Travelers must present a certificate of vaccination, certificate of recovery or a negative Covid-19 test result: either a PCR test taken 72 hours before arrival or an antigen test taken 28 hours before arrival. If none of those can be provided, the traveler must take a Covid test in Austria within 24 hours of arrival, at their own expense, and register using a pre-travel clearance form.
Within Austria, masks must be worn inside hotels, museums, restaurants and public transportation; however, restrictions are to be eased starting July 1. More information.
Travel to Belgium
U.S. residents are permitted to travel to Belgium for tourism without proof vaccination or negative Covid test.
Arriving visitors must present a passenger locator form within 48 hours of arrival. As these policies are subject to change without notice, U.S. residents with questions about travel regulations to Belgium are encouraged to contact their airline or their local Belgian embassy.
Travel to Croatia
Croatia was one of the first European countries to throw open its doors to vaccinated Americans. Visitors need proof of vaccination; a negative PCR test no older than 72 hours or an antigen test no older than 48 hours; or of proof of recovery from a Covid infection.
Also, tourists are required to book and pay in full for accommodations in advance of arrival and have documents to prove it, according to Wanda Radetti, the founder and president of Tasteful Croatian Journeys, adding that Tasteful Croatian Journeys will prepare the necessary documents for its guests.
Masks are required indoors and on public transportation, and nightclubs are closed.
Travel to the Czech Republic
The Czech Republic opened to U.S. residents June 21. U.S. residents traveling to the Czech Republic need a negative PCR test 72 hours or fewer or a negative antigen test 48 hours or fewer before the start of their first flight. They also need to fill in and and present a passenger locator form.
In order to check into a hotel, go to a restaurant or shop or sightsee indoors, all visitors need to present a negative test result, proof of vaccination or medical proof of recovery from Covid-19 in the last 180 days. Travelers should also pack KN95 or FFP2 masks (called "respirators"), which may be required for some activities. More information. Updated July 19.
Travel to Denmark
Denmark is open to American travelers, regardless of vaccination status.
Fully vaccinated visitors (Moderna, Pfizer, AstraZeneca or Johnson & Johnson) from the U.S. can enter Denmark for tourism without testing or quarantine requirements if they present proof of vaccination and at least two weeks have passed since their final dose.
Unvaccinated visitors must present a Covid test upon arrival but are not required to quarantine.
The U.S. Embassy in Denmark notes that entry rules for the country change frequently and with little notice, so visitors are encouraged to monitor the Danish government's Covid-19 information page for updates.
Travel to Finland
Updated: Finland is lifting restrictions on Americans entering the country as of July 12. To be eligible, travelers must present proof of vaccination 14 days prior to arrival or proof of recovery from Covid-19 within six months of arrival.
No further mandatory tests are required for visitors who meet either of these conditions. Other travelers must present a certificate of a negative Covid-19 test taken before entering Finland and take a Covid-19 test three to five days after arrival. They must quarantine while waiting for the negative test result.
Children born in 2005 or later are not required to take part in a health examination or a Covid-19 test.
For the latest information on entry requirements, see the country's Covid-specific site.
Travel to France
France is now open to vaccinated and unvaccinated American travelers. Unvaccinated travelers need to present a negative PCR test of less than 72 hours or a negative antigen test of less than 48 before boarding. Fully vaccinated travelers with a Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Moderna and Janssen vaccine can enter without the need to undergo tests.
As to the in-destination experience, indoor dining and other restrictions have been eased, and the curfew has been pushed back to 11 p.m. Masks are required in public venues, and fines may be levied for noncompliance.
"In all scenarios, visits to a museum or monument should be organized quite in advance because of certain visiting restrictions -- the number of people at the same visiting slot, social distancing and the like -- and because the French and Parisians have been deprived and are now flocking to get their culture fix," said Marion Fourestier, director of communications for Atout France.
For more entry specifics, visit the Foreign Ministry site and click on "Can I Enter France."
Travel to Germany
Germany reopened to U.S. travelers on June 20.
Proof of vaccination, proof of recovery from Covid-19 (a positive PCR test result must be at least 28 days but not more than six months old) or results of a negative test taken no more than 72 hours (no more than 48 hours if using a rapid antigen test) is required for entry for all visitors age six or older.
Travel to Greece
Greece is officially open to U.S. tourists.
Visitors must provide proof of vaccination or a negative Covid PCR test.
Children 5 and younger can enter without restrictions when accompanied by adults who meet the requirements.
A curfew is in place from 1:30 a.m. to 5:00 a.m. Restaurants and attractions are open, but size and capacity restrictions are in place. Expect to wear masks indoors and in some outdoor locations.
Travel to Iceland
Iceland was one of the first European countries to open its doors to Americans. Travelers who have been vaccinated or who can show proof of prior infection have been able to enter the country without testing or quarantining since April.
There are no curfews, but masks are required on public transportation, with fines enacted for noncompliance.
Travel to Ireland
Ireland is open for travel from the U.S. as of July 19, regardless of vaccination status. Those who can provide proof of vaccination can skip the testing and quarantine rules. Unvaccinated travelers will be required to present a negative Covid-19 test taken within 72 hours, quarantine for 14 days upon arrival and undergo post-arrival testing.
Before arriving in Ireland, U.S. visitors will need to complete a passenger locator form. Children between the ages of 12 and 17 must have a negative RT-PCR test to travel into Ireland, even with fully vaccinated or recovered adults. Children under 12 do not need to take a RT-PCR test prior to traveling to Ireland. There are no curfews in place, but masks are required on public transportation, indoors and outside where social distancing is not possible.
For any further changes please check the Irish government website for the latest information. Updated July 17.
Travel to Italy
Generally speaking, Americans are free to visit Italy for tourism, but the rules may vary by region and are in flux.
Americans must present proof of full vaccination, or proof of recovery from Covid-19, or a negative Covid-19 swab test taken within 48 hours of departure. A self-declaration form is required on entry.
Children age 6 or older accompanied by a caregiver with one of the above certifications must take a predeparture Covid test; children under 6 are exempt.
Italy is also offering Covid-tested flights from the U.S.
Travel to Malta
Malta opened to U.S. travelers June 17, initially on a state-by-state basis, but has since changed the entry requirements twice.
As of July 19, all travelers from the U.S. are allowed to enter with proof of vaccination. Malta recognizes the U.S. CDC Covid-19 Vaccination Record Card with an EMA-approved vaccine (a full course of Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Oxford-AstraZeneca or Johnson&Johnson and 14 days since last dose) as a valid vaccination certificate.
On Aug. 1, those requirements will change again, and that vaccination card will need to be verified through a specific app, the details of which are to come.
Unvaccinated visitors will be subject to a mandatory PCR test and mandatory quarantine of 14 days in a hotel the government chooses. Travelers will be charged a fee for the hotel stay.
Arriving passengers are also required to complete the Digital Passenger Locator Form.
Because of the fluid nature of these requirements, travelers and advisors are encouraged to check regularly for updates.
Travel to the Netherlands
U.S. residents can travel to the Netherlands with no negative test requirements and no self-quarantine on arrival. Arriving air passengers do need to fill in a health declaration and carry it with them.
Note, however, that a new spike in cases prompted the Dutch prime minister on July 9 to reimpose restrictions on restaurants, nightlife and other activities through Aug. 14. Travelers and advisors are encouraged to check regularly for updates.
Travel to Portugal
As of June 15, Portugal opened to nonessential travel for U.S. nationals.
By the current restrictions, in effect until June 28, visitors must present a negative Covid PCR test performed within 72 hours prior to the time of departure or an antigen test performed within 24 hours prior to the time of departure on the first embarkation point. Children under 24 months old are exempt.
Travelers also need to present the same documentation to the border officers at arrival, but no other test or quarantine will be required.
Passengers are required to complete the Passenger Locator Card online for each passenger up to 48 hours before traveling.
Travel to Slovenia
Americans traveling from the U.S. for tourism are permitted to enter Slovenia if fully vaccinated or with proof of having recovered from Covid-19.
Those with prior Covid infection can present a certificate of a positive result of a PCR test older than 10 days but not older than six months.
Children under 15 accompanying their parents can enter Slovenia without needing to quarantine and do not require proof of a Covid test. A pre-arrival form is available to smooth the entry process.
Travel to Spain
As of June 24, Spain opened to all travelers from the U.S., regardless of vaccination status. Travelers must either travel directly to Spain from the U.S. or not leave the airport when connecting from another country.
A prearrival form with a QR code is required for each traveler.
There are Covid restrictions in place throughout the country, and these can vary by region, but generally expect capacity restrictions in restaurants and venues.
Travel to Sweden
As of July 1, Sweden opened its borders to U.S residents who live in and are traveling from the U.S.
Travelers need to present proof of vaccination, a negative PCR or antigen test or proof of recovery from Covid-19.
Negative tests must have been administered less than 48 hours before arriving in Sweden, and the time restriction is strictly enforced.
Businesses in Sweden are generally open, but safety protocols, including social distancing, are in place.
Travel to Switzerland
On June 26, Switzerland reopened to North American guests who are either fully vaccinated, have recovered from Covid-19 within six months or can present a negative Covid-19 PCR test. No quarantine is needed for arrivals who meet these qualifications.
Children and young adults under 16, when accompanied by an adult who meets entry regulations, are exempt from these requirements. Those between the ages of 16 and 18 need a negative test to board a plane and to enter Switzerland.
Travelers must complete the online form of the Federal Office of Public Health.
In addition, the Swiss government has reopened venues such as restaurants, events and leisure facilities, according to the to the Switzerland Tourism office.
For specific and updated information on entry requirements, check here.
Travel to the United Kingdom
As of Aug. 2, vaccinated Americans can travel to England and Scotland without quarantining. Visitors will need to take a predeparture test and a PCR test on or before day two of arrival, however, and individuals who test positive will be required to quarantine.
Vaccinated travelers from the U.S. need to show proof of vaccination through their physical vaccine card, as well as proof of U.S. residency. Unvaccinated visitors are required to quarantine for 10 days, as well as take a predeparture test and tests on or before day two, and on or after day eight of arriving.
All visitors must complete the passenger locator form, which can be filled out online within 48 hours of arrival.
Travelers can find test providers in England and Scotland by visiting the test provider website. Find more information on the traffic light system and its latest guidelines.
On the ground, Covid-related restrictions within each country of the U.K. have eased recently and remain under review; these are slightly different across the four countries as each is following its own plan for recovery. Updated July 28.